A healthy aquarium depends on maintaining clean water, and doing so requires some means of filtering out the water to remove contaminants and purify the water. Technically, there are three means of filtering aquarium water: Biological, Chemical, and Mechanical filter.
1. Biological filtration refers to the process by which beneficial bacteria break down ammonia and nitrite and transform them into compound nitrate, which is much less toxic. For beneficial bacteria to thrive, oxygen-rich water is needed, as well as a surface that bacteria can attach to, such as rocks or sand. All aquariums should have some provisions for biological filtration, and with very small fish populations, this alone might be sufficient to sustain the aquarium. However, in most aquariums, biological filtration will be just one method that is combined with others.
2. Chemical filtration is a process by which chemical additives remove dissolved wastes from the water. The most common method for chemical filtration uses activated charcoal.
3. Mechanical filtration is what most people think of as true filtration—machinery that removes solid particles from water by circulating water and straining it through some kind of aquarium filter. It is important to understand that mechanical filtration alone is not sufficient since it does not remove or convert ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite in the water. Mechanical filtration serves to remove free-floating waste before it decays into harmful substances, and to be beneficial the filter material must be cleaned or replaced every two to four weeks. In addition to filtering contaminants from the water, mechanical filtration assists in aerating the water.
To effectively maintain an aquarium, a filter should run all the water in the tank through the filter at least four times each hour. When choosing a system, pay attention to what kind of filtration it offers—biological, chemical, or mechanical. Some systems combine the different forms of filtration, to varying degrees of success.
No matter use which filters types, over time, filter media will trap more and more particulate matter, slowly reducing the water flow through the filter.
When filter media becomes full of waste is that the debris begins to decompose, releasing harmful toxins into the water. Such events can, and should, be avoided for the sake of maintaining a healthy biological balance in the aquarium. Filter media must be washed or replaced regularly.
Wedge wire screen Lateral Water Distributor and filter water nozzle/pipe/tube usually used in the Aquarium Filtration system, and the Wedge Wire Screen is a multipurpose screen with characteristics of toughness and clogging resistance where slit/slot suitable for the application are formed by arranging "wedge wires" with a triangle shape at equal intervals, so filtration is more uniform and fine, and the use time is longer.
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